400C: Force Transducers
The 400C series of force transducers is the next generation of our widely used 400A and B series. Advancements include new 2 and 4 channels versions of the amplifier for potential simultaneous measurements and new detachable cables for the sensor heads. This new series, like its B predecessor, has the sensitive signal processing circuitry in the transducer head itself. These new circuits allow any sensor head in the series to be plugged into the control electronics. Researchers can now purchase multiple heads to cover different force ranges, or as spares, and use them with a single controller. Other benefits of the new design are reduced noise, increased sensitivity, and greatly improved linearity.
The 400C series of isometric force transducers enables contractile measurements from a variety of muscle types and sizes and are designed to meet the needs of muscle researchers. Each model is capable of measuring force in both tension and compression. These transducers are more robust and have less compliance than typical semi-conductor strain gauges. Physiologists now have a reliable and more economical way to quickly measure the contractile properties of all muscle types and connective tissue.
There are seven models in the series with the most sensitive model featuring a resolution of 10nN (1 microgram). The range of models allows researchers to measure forces from individual cells, single fibers and whole muscle covering a force range from 0.5mN to 1000mN.
Researchers can confidently measure force with extremely low compliance (<5µm at full load), eliminating any significant length change in the sample. The design provides excellent thermal stability and minimal sensitivity to vibration and interference. It also provides reliability and ease-of-use without troublesome compensation and filtering techniques.
Complete, ready-to-use force transducers designed for fast response, high resolution and low compliance measurement of mechanical properties, ranging from 0.5mN to 1000mN:
Available Sensor Heads:
Stories of Success
400A – Studying cancer cachexia in mouse models
In 2011 Dr. Theresa Guise and her colleague Dr. Andrew Marks approached Aurora Scientific seeking help in functionally characterizing muscle from their mouse tumor model. They were looking to assess the progression of muscle loss and weakness in these mice and investigate potential therapies.
Because the pathology in these mice was incredibly aggressive, many animals would need to be tested in a short period of time. This would necessitate the use of multiple rigs and a robust transducer that allowed for high throughput. Because Dr. Guise was only looking to perform basic isometric strength and fatigue measures, a dual-mode lever system would have been prohibitively expensive for its capabilities.
Enter the Aurora Scientific 407A. As the transducer in the 400A series with the greatest force measurement capacity, it was suitable for making isometric force measurements in whole skeletal muscle from mouse. The unit is the most robust out of the whole 400A series, lessening the risk of accidental damage. The 407A was effectively paired with a modified 800A in-vitro muscle apparatus, as well as our 701C electrical stimulator and 615A DMC/DMA software.
The 407A transducer helped the labs of Dr. Guise and Dr. Marks to test many mouse models of cancer cachexia and performed so well that several more units were required in both labs to keep up with demand. Using the Aurora Scientific 407A, these researchers were ultimately able to determine the mechanisms and pathways that cause muscle weakness associated with various cancers. These results and many others were recently published in Nature Medicine.
300C: Dual-Mode Muscle Levers
Seamless, flexible control of force and length, with the unique ability to measure one or both in a single and convenient lever system.Learn More
315D/322D: High-Speed Length Controllers
The 315D/322D High-Speed Length Controllers give physiologists the ability to control and measure length of single cells, fibers and whole muscle with ease.Learn More
600A: Real-Time Muscle Data Acquisition and Analysis System
The 600A Digital Controller serves to integrate components and provide the researcher control of system operations, data collection and signal analysis.Learn More
605A: Dynamic Muscle Data Acquisition and Analysis System
Precise, custom software designed for real-time data acquisition, instrument control and data analysis with unique, integrative features. Includes force and SL control capabilityLearn More
701C: Electrical Stimulator
Our high-powered, bi-phase stimulator designed for muscle researchers conducting the most demanding field stimulation protocols.Learn More
800C: in-vitro Muscle Apparatus
Flexible design makes these systems the ideal choice for measuring muscle properties of intact muscle tissue in mice and ratsLearn More
801C: Small Intact Muscle Apparatus – Microscope Mountable
Highly integrated apparatus, optimally designed to test small, intact muscle contractilityLearn More
802D: Permeabilized Fiber Apparatus – Microscope Mountable
A multi-well automated test system for quick and accurate measurement of permeabilized fiber dynamicsLearn More
803B: Permeabilized Myocyte Apparatus – Microscope Mountable
Innovative 8–well plate designed for quick cell attachment and measurement of myocyte mechanical propertiesLearn More
804A: Permeabilized Fiber ATPase Apparatus
The 804A ATPase apparatus was designed to enable physiology researchers to measure consumption of ATP along with contractile force and length changes of permeabilized fibers. The 804A works in conjunction with an Aurora Scientific model 315D or 322D high-speed length controller and an Aurora 400C series force transducer.Learn More
1200A: Isolated Muscle System for Mice
The 1200A isolated muscle test system is a leading solution for quantifying mechanical properties of isolated muscle from mice. This system is ideal for a number of limb muscles including the TA, EDL, Soleus, Gastroc and for diaphragm strips and smaller muscle samples.Learn More
1205A: Isolated Muscle System for Rats
The 1205A isolated muscle test system is optimized for the study of mechanical properties of rat isolated muscle samples. Just like the 1200A, this system is ideal for a number of limb muscles such as TA, EDL, Soleus, Gastroc and for diaphragm strips and smaller muscle samples.Learn More
1400A: Permeabilized Fiber System – Microscope Mountable
The 1400A and 1410A Permeabilized Fiber Systems are designed to enhance experimental throughput and simplify complex permeabilized fiber experiments.Learn More
1500A: Isolated Muscle System – Microscope Mountable
The Isolated Muscle Systems (1500A, 1510A and 1530A) are highly integrated, turnkey systems providing physiology researchers a simple way to control and measure intact muscle and physiological small tissue samples.Learn More
1600A: Permeabilized Myocyte System – Microscope Mountable
The 1600A Permeabilized Myocyte Test System is designed to simplify the complex testing of contractile properties of skinned myocytes.Learn More
|Maximum Force [± mN]||50||500||5||100||10||0.5||1,000|
|Scale Factor [mN/Volt ±2%]||5.0||50.0||0.5||10.0||1.0||0.05||100.0|
|Signal Linearity1 [%]||99||99||99||99||99||99||99|
|Step Response Time2 [millisecond]||0.3||0.1||1.0||0.3||1.0||5.0||0.1|
|Resonant Frequency3 [Hz]||2,000||4,000||600||2,000||600||100||4,000|
|Zero Drift [µN/°C]||5||50||0.5||10||1||0.05||100|
|Gain Drift [%/°C]||0.01||0.01||0.01||0.01||0.01||0.01||0.01|
|Hysteresis [% of force change]||0.01||0.01||0.01||0.01||0.01||0.01||0.01|
|Maximum Overload Force [mN]||250||2,500||25||250||25||2.5||2,500|
|Output Tube Length (L) [mm]||7||7||7||7||7||7||7|
|Output Tube Diameter (D) [mm]||0.9||1.1||0.9||0.9||0.9||0.9||1.1|
1 = Over full force range; 2 = 1 to 99%; 3 = -3dB point
|General Specifications||All Models|
|Operating Temperature [°C]||0 – 40|
|Power Required||100, 120, 220, 240 VAC, 50/60 Hz. available|
|Power Consumption [W]||20|
|Controller Weight [kg]||2.5|
|Head Weight [g]||105|
|Controller Dimensions [cm]||21W (1/2 rack mount) x 25D x 9H (2U)|